Alexandre Dumas père - Présentation : le premier de la lignée des Dumas

Tableau de Guillaume Guillon-Lethière autre métis célèbre.


Thomas Alexandre Davy de La Pailleterie dis le Général Alexandre Dumas fils d’un "petit" marquis blanc, français et d’une femme noire esclave nommée Céssette de l’île d’Haïti (comme Jean-Baptiste Pointe du Sable et le Général Pétion) est né le 27 mars 1762, soit quatre ans avant Louis Delgrès , 9 ans avant le Docteur Fournier de Pescay et 16 (ou 18 selon les biographies) ans avant le jeune prodige virtuose George Bridgetower. C'est le père des Dumas, nommé Alexandre comme son fils et son petit-fils, il est arrivé en France à l’âge de vingt ans et fait une brillante carrière dans les armes aux côté de Bonaparte, les légendes ne manquent pas à l’égard du "héros des pyramides"(Il était capable d’empoigner dix fusils (un sur chaque doigt) et de les brandir les deux bras levés, il a défendu des positions avec réussite seul contre vingt, etc.).
C’est je crois le second métis, à briller dans l’armée française (après le Chevalier de Saint-George qui l'a recruté dans sa légion). C'est également le second métis nommé Alexandre (après Alexandre de Médicis le Duc de Florence) à se faire un nom en occident. Alexandre Dumas fils lui voue une admiration sans borne, fait de lui un dieu. Il ne l’a que pourtant peu connu, il ne doit lui rester que le souvenir d’un colosse noir d’un mètre quatre vingt quinze. Alexandre Dumas père est le premier de la dynastie des Dumas à avoir réussi en France.
Alexandre Dumas fils donne naissance à un enfant appelé également Alexandre. Cette homme n’est plus vraiment noir, il possède un huitième de sang noir, c'est un octavon. Fidèle à son père il laisse son empreinte dans la littérature française et sa renommée n’est pas loin d’avoir rejoint celle de son père (Alexandre Dumas troisième du nom a été auteur de nombreux romans et pièces de théâtre dont La Dame aux Camélias).
Claude Ribbe dans sa "Lettre ouverte à M. Nicolas Sarkozy à propos du général Dumas et du 60e anniversaire de la déclaration universelle des droits de l'Homme" (le 25 septembre 2007) décrit Alexandre Dumas père comme un Français modèle et un modèle d'intégration :
"J'ai l'honneur d'attirer votre attention sur un compatriote injustement oublié par la République : le général Alexandre Dumas-Davy de La Pailleterie, né esclave à Saint-Domingue (aujourd'hui république d'Haïti), héros de la Révolution, défenseur des droits de l'Homme, père de l'écrivain français le plus lu dans le monde. En un mot, un Français modèle, mais aussi un modèle d'intégration.
(...)
Il fut le premier Français d'origine afro-antillaise à accéder en 1793 au grade de général dans l'armée dont vous êtes le chef, Monsieur le Président de la République, et qui se dit aujourd'hui soucieuse d'ouvrir davantage la carrière d'officier à la diversité..."
Autres articles de l'Apologie du Métissage sur les Dumas :

Pour des ouvrages sur le Général Dumas : voir les ouvrages sur les Dumas dans la boutique de la famille Dumas.

Article repris sur "Le rayonnement d'Haïti" (leshaitiens.com)

21 commentaires:

Anonyme a dit…

FOURNIER DE PESCAY, François,
(7 September 1771, Bordeaux, - c 1845, Paris) of half African descent, hence his name, an army surgeon before practising medicine for a time in Bruxelles, where he founded its Société de Médecine, and later returning to the army. In addition to the works listed here, he was the author of literary and other medical works and edited the RMMChPhM (1).
(1) DScM Vol. 4 1821 (with bibliography); BU; H.

* Essai historique et pratique sur l'inoculation de la vaccine, par Fournier. Ancien Chirurgien en chef des hôpitaux militaires, Médecin à l'hospice des Insensés de la ville de Bruxelles; Membre du Lycée des Arts de Paris; Secrétaire adjoint de la Société de Médecine de Bruxelles; Membre de la Société des Sciences, Arts, Agriculture et Commerce de la même ville, etc,etc. Seconde édition, Revue et augmentée par l'Auteur, et enrichie d'une planche en taille-douce. Bruxelles: Flon. An IX- Juin 1801.
CONTENTS: [aia][p.i] Half-Title: Essai/ historique et pratique/ sur l'inoculation/de la vaccine [expanded rule], [aib[]p. ii] blank; aiiap. iii dedication; [p. iv] blank; a iiia p.v Avant-Propos [rule] Text; aiiia-aivb pp. v- viii text; [p.ix] Presentation; [p.x] Reponse; [p.11] Essai/ historique et pratique/ sur l'inoculation/ de la vaccine. [rule] pp.11-55 text. p.55 Explication de la planche. FIN. Headings pp. 35, 44.. Footnotes pp. 11, 14, 16, 20-22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 35, 39, 41. The first edition was written in haste (author).
A history of smallpox with particular reference to the Paris epidemic of 1799-1800 precedes a history of vaccination. He interprets fever as `le signe certain de la conjunction du virus vaccin avec la disposition ou germe variolique que tout homme porte en naissant'. 'Vaccine imparfaite' results from matter harvested too late. On the question of relationship between vaccine and petite vérole, 'il est probable, à mon sens, que c'est le même miasme qui frappe et les hommes et les animaux'.

Second Rapport de la Commission de Vaccine: 'ouvrage aussi bien raisonné qu'également écrit et qui est déjà à sa 3e édition' [not traced]

* Essai historique et pratique sur l'inoculation de la vaccine; par Fournier, Docteur en Médecine et en Chirurgie; ancien Chirurgien en chef des hôpitaux militaires; Médecin à l'hospice des Insensés de la ville de Bruxelles; Membre du Lycée des Arts de Paris, de la Société médicale d'Emulation de la même ville; Secrétaire général, adjoint, de la Société de Médecine de Bruxelles; Membre de la Société des Sciences, Arts, Agriculture et Commerce de la même ville, etc etc. Quatrième Edition, Revue et augmentée par l'Auteur et enrichie d'une planche en taille-douce. A Bruxelles, De l'Imprimérie d'Emmanuel Flon, et se trouve à Paris, chez Croullebois, Libraire, rue des Mathurins. Floréal an X-1802. viij, 64 pp.

* Rapport sur la vaccine, présenté à la Société de Médecine de Bruxelles; dans sa séance du 5 vendémiaire an 11, par Fournier, doct en Méd. et en Chirurg., Secrét.-général-adjoint de la Société, et F. Curtet, son Bibliothécaire.
CONTENTS: A1ap.1 Title [expanded rule] - [A8b] p.8 Text, signatures of authors [expanded rule] statement of Comité 5 vendemiaire an 11 [double rule]. Notes p.2; Headings pp. 5,6,7; A Bruxelles, chez Emmanuel Flon, Imprimeur de la Société de Médecine.
Contains the claim that many chronic ailments are cured by vaccination.

Admin a dit…

Merci beaucoup pour ces informations de qualité, je ne connaissait même pas l'existance de François FOURNIER DE PESCAY !
Je vais prendre le maximum de renseignements possibles et je publierai un article sur cet homme mémorable, un des premiers métis, voir le premier à s'être fait un nom dans le monde de la science :-)

Apologie du Métissage a dit…

Encore merci à celui qui m'a donné ces informations sur le Docteur Fournier de Pescay, le billet le concernant sur ce blog est quasiment finalisé, il sera publié dès que j'aurai mis la main sur son portrait exposé au Val de grace à Paris (dans les jours qui viennent).

Anonyme a dit…

Abram Petrovich Gannibal
Major-General Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal or Ibrahim Hannibal, (1696 – 14 May[1]1781) was an African slave who was brought to Russia by Peter the Great and became major-general, military engineer and governor of Reval. He is perhaps best known today as the great-grandfather of Aleksandr Pushkin, who wrote an unfinished novel about him, The Moor of Peter the Great.
Early life
His origins are uncertain. Early writings about Gannibal suggest he was born in 1696 in a village called "Lagon," the capital of a minor Ethiopian province, located "on the northern side of the Mareb River..."[2][3] (which serves as much of the modern border between Ethiopia and Eritrea). However, no such place has been identified in Ethiopia. He was rumored to be the 19th son of some lesser ruler or warlord. "As the other sons were brought to their father with their hands trussed up with a rope, he enjoyed freedom of the youngest son swimming in his father's fountains" (Pushkin's notes to Eugene Onegin). The research (1996) of Dieudonné Gnammankou suggests he may actually be from what is now the Sultanate of Logone-Birni in Cameroon south of Lake Chad. In an official document that Gannibal submitted in 1742 to Empress Elizabeth, while petitioning for the rank of nobility and a coat of arms, he asked for the right to use a family crest emblazoned with an elephant and the mysterious word "FVMMO". It means homeland in Kotoko. However, FVMMO has also been suggested to stand for the Latin expression "Fortuna Vitam Meam Mutavit Oppido" which means "Fortune has changed my life in the city".
At the age of seven (c. 1703) Gannibal was taken to the court of the Ottoman Sultan at Constantinople. Based on the year, the Sultan was either Mustafa II (reigned 1695–1703) or Ahmed III (reigned 1703–1730). The German biography of Gannibal, compiled anonymously from his own words, explains that "the children of the noble families were taken to the ruler of all the Muslims, the Turkish sultan, as hostages", to be killed or sold into slavery if their fathers misbehaved. Gannibal's sister Lahan was taken into captivity at the same time but died during the voyage. See Arab slave trade.
In 1704, after one year in the capital, Gannibal was taken away by the deputy of the Russian ambassador Savva Raguzinsky, who was following the orders of his superiors (one of whom was Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy, great-grandfather of the great writer Lev Tolstoy.)
All of this was done by order of Peter the Great. Apparently, Gannibal wasn't the only "arap" boy to be taken. While it was fashionable at the time to have black children at the courts of European monarchs, this was not the main reason for the Tsar's orders; he was pursuing an educational goal. "Araps" were considered to be savage and uncivilized at that time, but Peter wanted to prove that these children were as good in the arts and sciences as their Russian peers were and to show that he valued people by their abilities and not their skin color.
Gannibal was baptized in 1705, in St. Paraskeva's Church in Vilnius, with Peter as his godfather.
Education
In 1717, Gannibal was taken to Paris to continue an education in the arts, sciences, and warfare. By then he was fluent in several languages and knew mathematics and geometry. He fought with the forces of Louis XV of France against those of Louis' uncle Philip V of Spain and rose to the rank of captain. It was during his time in France that Gannibal adopted his surname in honor of the Carthaginian general Hannibal (Gannibal being the traditional transliteration of the name in Russian). In Paris he met and befriended such Enlightenment figures as Denis Diderot, the Baron de Montesquieu, and Voltaire. (This claim by his biographer Hugh Barnes is disputed by reviewer Andrew Kahn.[4]) Voltaire called Gannibal the "dark star of the Enlightenment".[5]
Under Peter & Elizabeth


Letter signed by A. Ganibal March 22, 1744. Tallinn City Archive.
Gannibal's education was completed by 1722 and he was due to return to Russia. He wrote to Peter and begged for permission to return to Russia by land, not sea. It is rumored that he was met on his return by Peter himself, a few kilometers away from Moscow.
After the death of Peter in 1725, Gannibal was exiled to Siberia in 1727, some 4,000 miles to the east of St Petersburg. He was pardoned in 1730 for his skills in military engineering. After Peter's daughter Elizabeth became the new monarch in 1741, he became a prominent person at her court, rose to the rank of major-general and became governor of Tallinn, a position he held from 1742 to 1752. A letter signed on March 22, 1744 by "A. Ganibal" (note only one 'n') has been photographed at the Tallinn City Archive, see photo. The Empress Elizabeth had in 1742 given him the Mikhailovskoye estate in Pskov province with hundreds of serfs.[6][7] Here, he retired in 1762.
It is rumored that the great general Aleksandr Suvorov owed his life as a soldier to Gannibal, who convinced Suvorov's father to let his son pursue a military career.
Family
Gannibal married twice. His first wife was Evdokia Dioper, a Greek woman. The couple married in 1731 and had one daughter. Unfortunately Dioper despised her husband, whom she was forced to marry. When Gannibal found out that she had been unfaithful to him, he had her arrested and thrown into prison, where she spent eleven years living in terrible conditions. Gannibal began living with another woman, Christina Regina Siöberg, and married her in Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia in 1736, a year after the birth of their first child and while still bigamously married to his first wife. The divorce from Dioper would not become final until 1753, upon which a fine and a penance were imposed on Gannibal, and Dioper was sent to a convent for the rest of her life. Gannibal's second marriage was nevertheless deemed legal.
On her paternal side, Gannibal’s second wife, Christina Regina Siöberg, descended from noble families in Scandinavia and Germany: Siöberg (Sweden), Galtung (Norway) and Grabow (Denmark and Brandenburg).[8][9] Abram Gannibal and Christina Regina Siöberg had ten children, including a son, Osip. Osip in turn would have a daughter, Nadezhda, the mother of Aleksandr Pushkin. Gannibal's oldest son, Ivan, became an accomplished naval officer who founded the city of Kherson in 1779 and reached the rank of General-in-Chief, the 2nd highest rank of tzarist Russia. It should also be noted that some British aristocrats descend from Gannibal, such as Natalia Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster and George Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven.[citation needed]

Anonyme a dit…

Merci pour ce site que je trouve tres interessant et instructif.

Pour completer votre documentation, je vous ai fait parvenir un article sur un GENERAL RUSSE AFRICAIN du nom:
d'Abram Petrovich Gannibale

Je vous ferai parvenir quelques noms celebres de sa descendance.

Apologie du Métissage a dit…

Cher partenaire !!

Si c'est également vous qui m'avez parlé de Fournier de Pescay, encore merci pour François, c'est vous qui me l'avez fait connaître !
Et de multiples remerciements pour vos informations sur Abram Petrovich Gannibale, je ne connaissais pas sa vie. C'est étonnant, hier un lecteur de ce blog me proposait de consacrer un billet à Pouchkine, j'ai prévu de le faire, mais je lui est répondu que ce serait Fournier du Pescay le prochain "ancien" qui serait honoré ici sur le site de Métis Célèbres. Concernant Pouchkine, on parle souvent de son arrière grand père africain ... Mais rarement du Major-Géneral !!

A propos de François Fournier du Pescay (toujours si c'est vous qui me l'avez fait connaître), je n'ai toujours pas publié le billet car je tiens absolument à le faire avec son portrait. Après renseignements j'ai appris qu'il était dans la Chapelle du Val de Grâce, mais en fait il est dans une zone du Val de Grâce exclusivement réservée aux militaires : l'Inspection Générale de la Santée. Depuis hier, j'ai peut-être un contact militaire au Val de Grâce qui va pouvoir prendre la photo du portrait pour moi. Voilà vous savez tout.

Bien cordialement et encore merci. J'aimerais pouvoir vous avertir lorsque j'aurais le portrait de Pescay.

Anonyme a dit…

Un portrait du Dr. Francois Fournier de Pescay se trouve a l'adresse suivante.

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~htiwgw/familles/fiches/photo/025729.jpg

Un excellent article biographique sur l'importance de ce médecin noir dans l'histoire de la médecine a été publié par en 1985 par J.R. Fikes, un professeur de l'Université de la Californie.

Fikes qualifie FOURNIER PESCAY de 'véritable pionnier de la médecine moderne'

REFERENCE

Fike J.R. 1985. François Fournier de Pescay: the unheralded precursor of the modern black physician. J Natl Med Assoc. 1985 Sep;77(9):683-6

Aplogie du metissage a dit…

Bonjour cher anonyme,

Superbe !! Je suis allé voir : merci !
Je n'avais pas imaginé la tête qu'il avait.
J'ai signé une convention avec le Val de Grace pour avoir l'autorisation de publier sur ce site le portrait qui se trouve au musée des armées. Ils ne m'ont pas encore envoyé la photographie mais m'ont promis de le faire dès que possible (c'est probablement la même).
J'ai un peu de scrupules à utiliser la photo dont vous me faites part, mais je citerai vos références dès que j'aurais recu le courrier du conservateur du musée des armées.

Encore merci
Bien amicalement et à bientot

Apologie du Metissage a dit…

Au cher anonyme qui m'a fait connaître le Le docteur fournier de pescay : vous pouvez maintenant le visualiser sur les métis célèbre avec une photo du tableau exposé au Val-de-grace : ca a été très long mais on y est !!

Merci encore j'espère que l'on pourra un jour échanger plus longement que via les commentaires de ce blog.

http://apologiedumetissage.blogspot.com/2008/06/francois-fournier-de-pescay.html

Merci encore et à bientôt

Anonyme a dit…

j'ai relevé plus haut dans le premier commentaire le mot : intégration...
ne pensez-vous pas que l'on pourrait parler d'assimilation...
j'ai l'impression actuellement que ce terme est galvaudé à travers les médias et a pris une connotation négative.
la remarque est : en cours d'histoire on employait plutôt le terme : assimilation.. mais peut-être, le facteur de couleur n'était pas concerné..

Apologie du Metissage a dit…

Je ne peux pas vous dire ce que voulais dire Claude Ribbe en utilisant le mot "intégration", je pense pour ma part qu'il voulait dire qu'en ces temps où "intégration" est un terme sensible et comme vous le dites galvaudé par les médias : le Général Dumas est un modèle. Mais ok avec vous il a assimilé on ne peut mieux la culture française ... pour le fils d'une esclave ...

Anonyme a dit…

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